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Crusts were successfully used for variolation in many areas before vaccination with vaccinia virus.
Second, as an Enlightened naturalist, he was knowledgeable of the contrasts between Asian and African techniques of inoculation by variolation (deliberately blowing infectious scabs into nostrils so as to infect an individual with a mild form of the disease, but thereby making the person immune to the full disease), and the alternative European and American method of inoculation by vaccination (subcutaneous punctures on the skin).
(41.) Grundy, Comet of the Enlightenment, 102; see also, Arnold Klebs, "The Historic Evolution of Variolation," Bulletin of Johns Hopkins Hospital XXIV, no.
The introduction of variolation 'a la Turca' to the West by Lady Mary Montagu and Turkey's contribution to this.
(4.) Specifically, this was variolation, an "obsolete process of inoculating a susceptible person with material taken from a vesicle of a person who has smallpox." WordNet, Princeton University, http:// = variolation.
(1) Mann describes Native familiarity with epidemic disease to the point of actively resisting variolation (inoculation with live smallpox virus) in preference to vaccination (inoculation with less-deadly cowpox), effectively counteracting the propaganda depicting ignorant, superstitious Indians.
Lei, por ejemplo, que ciertos prominentes cientificos sociales indios estan a favor de la costumbre tradicional de la variolation -la inoculacion con material vivo de viruela humana, acompanada de oraciones a la diosa de la viruela- por encima de la practica cientifica de la vacunacion que emplea vacuna de viruela de vaca, que tiene menos probabilidades de causar viruela en el paciente (69).
However, the idea of inoculation (variolation) with disease exudates or pox scabs as protection against future infection was already practised in China and India some 200 years before the Christian era, and is described in ancient Ayurvedic writings.
Turkish and Chinese styles of variolation were two possible ways of inoculating a child, both of which were introduced in Japan but gained little support from Japanese officials.
Howell's book on variolation in India, published in 1767, in which he states that the Indian inoculators always used 'matter from the inoculated pustules of the previous year'.