Relation

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Relation

Kin; relative. The connection of two individuals, or their situation with respect to each other, who are associated, either by law, agreement, or kinship in a social status or union for purposes of domestic life, such as Parent and Child or Husband and Wife.

The doctrine of relation is the principle by which an act performed at one time is deemed, through a legal fiction, to have been performed at a prior time. For example, in the conveyance of real property, the final proceeding that completes the transfer of property is considered, for certain purposes, to have become effective by relation as of the day when the first proceeding took place. Relation, in essence, is the legal term for retroactive effect.

RELATION, civil law. The report which the judges made of the proceedings in certain suits to the prince were so called.
     2. These relations took place when the judge had no law to direct him, or when the laws were susceptible of difficulties; it was then referred to the prince, who was the author of the law, to give the interpretation. Those reports were made in writing and contained the pleadings of the parties, and all the proceedings, together with the judge's opinion, and prayed the emperor to order what should be done. The ordinance of the prince thus required was called a rescript. (q.v.) the use of these relations was abolished by Justinian, Nov. 125.

RELATION, contracts, construction. When an act is done at one time, and it operates upon the thing as if done at another time, it is said to do so by relation; as, if a man deliver a deed as an escrow, to be delivered by the party holding it, to the grantor, on the performance of some act, the delivery to the latter will have relation back to the first delivery. Termes de la Ley. Again, if a partner be adjudged a bankrupt, the partnership is dissolved, and such dissolution relates back to the time when the commission issued. 3 Kent, Com. 33. Vide 18 Vin. Ab. 285; 4 Com. Dig. 245; 5 Id. 339; Litt. S. C. 462-466; 2 John. 510; 4 John. 230; 15 John. 809; 2 Har. & John. 151, and the article Fiction.

References in periodicals archive ?
Vertical relations refer to the relationships between firms that trade with each other along a "chain" that moves from upstream (further away from the final consumer) to downstream (closer to the final consumer).
Thus, the creation of COF as a multilateral forum has not (and was not expected to) replaced vertical relations. These have simply occurred in other ways, such as ministerial councils or bilateral relations.
By doing so, the new structure has changed the pattern of interactions within Nestle Waters, as lateral relations have combined with vertical relations in building these international brands.
For the purposes of this paper, vertical relations are relations between two or more hierarchical levels, such as between the individual and the organizational level.
Washington's challenges are far from over, and Buckley's list of contemporary difficulties includes "two Koreas, two Chinas, nuclear and conventional weaponry on a massive scale and the absence of a Russo-Japanese peace treaty." He argues the United States must prepare to resolve such problems through cooperative partnerships that will rely less on bilateral and vertical relations and more on a variety of Asian nations accepting a greater share of the responsibility; simultaneously, the United States must retain a combination of "regional muscle," the "political will to readily deploy" forces, and the "necessary weapon systems and Pacific Rim basing facilities" to act effectively as "insurance against aggression" and "reassurance to its allies."
Other issues pertaining to party building, as to how vertical relations between higher and lower units of the party is arranged and how horizontal relations between the organizational and elected wings of the party are coordinated also form a crucial part of the book.
(1999) `The development of a methodology for researching vertical relations in SMEs', British Academy of Management Annual Conference, Managing Diversity, Manchester Metropolitan University.
Using this framework, the authors examine how work relations (workers' relationship to work itself), vertical relations (employment and control relations), lateral relations (co-worker relations), and customer relations vary across service, sales, and knowledge work settings.
Bipartism is the common view that the nature of an intentional state can be wholly explained in terms of (a) its horizontal relations with other such states (as well as peripheral inputs and outputs); and Co) its vertical relations with the world.
Since Brenner downplays throughout his analysis such "vertical" relations as the class struggle and the concentration and centralization of capital, it is perhaps not surprising that he also gives little attention to a third set of vertical relations - namely, relations of imperialism, understood in terms of the domination of the periphery by the center.
As an imperfection can be considered insignificant, the vertical connection of production with the processing industry and suppliers of inputs to agriculture organizations has slight influence on decisions of vertical relations toward customers and suppliers in most economic subjects concerning agriculture.