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The whole Islamic idea of ecotheology can be understood in rereading the harmony between two ends: people are created to dominate the world; however, they are vicegerents of God and thus are allowed to exercise their freedom and power in accordance with God's authority as a vicegerent does.
Therefore, all such steps and social activities that help in the spiritual, intellectual, and physical growth of humankind are included in the duties of a man as the vicegerent of God.
When Allah told the angels, "I will create a vicegerent on earth", the angels said "Will You place there one who will make mischief and shed blood while we celebrate Your praises and glorify Your holy name?" And He said: "I know what you know not." (9) Because the angels did not hold the unifying trait of Adam, they could not know the divine names other than those which had been assigned to them.
According to IEP, God created humankind to be the guardian of the earth and gave them dominion over its inhabitants, but with a burden of responsibilities: "He (God) it is Who made you vicegerents on earth" (Qur'an 35:39).
The centralprikazy had just begun to emerge in the 1550s and 1560s; approaches to local government varied considerably, with some communities being sold rights of zemskii self-government while others were under fortifications stewards [gorodovye prikashchiki), annual commandants (godovye voevody), secretaries (d'iaki, as in Novgorod), and still others remaining under vicegerents (namestniki).
In this story, Allah had chosen Prophet Adam as the vicegerent. However, Iblis (Satan) protested the decision.
"The Momin is alive and at war with himself." (Asrar-i-Khudi, 1972: 7).The war of a believer with Self, signifies the efforts one is to make to qualify for the position of vicegerent of God.
Whilst basing her rule on her status as crown or sovereign of the world she placed her rule firmly on the foundation that she was chosen by Allah, she was a representative of God, his vicegerent, to rule according to his laws.
In the Quran, God states that he has placed humanity as a "vicegerent on Earth" (2:30).
(20) When corporate leaders described themselves as khalifah, they translated it as "leader", "steward", or "vicegerent".
Vladimir, degraded to the post of a Nizhny Novgorod vicegerent, was accused of an attempt to bribe the Tsar's cook, who had come to buy live fish from the Volga fishermen, into feeding his master poisoned fish.
This would also fall under the Qur'anic definition of man as vicegerent -- God's representative on Earth.
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