viceroy

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As we have seen, the Cabildos of the capitals of the South American viceroyalties were active art collectors and represent the origins of civic patronage of the arts on the continent.
To reverse that state of affairs, at the beginning of the 18th century, the Crown took the decision, unhealthy whichever way you look at it, of prohibiting trade between the two Viceroyalties.
Between 1809 and 1823, four Viceroyalties, two of them created just before, were transformed into six countries: the Mexican Empire, Colombia, the United Provinces of Rio de La Plata, Chile, Paraguay and Peru.
Instead, the territorial history of independence is the history of the break-up of colonial viceroyalties into regional fragments, the consequence of caudillo-led internal war.
Of the violent crimes, homicides totaled several hundred in New Spain and New Granada, two of the viceroyalties listed above for which data are available, in the last half of the eighteenth century.
In 1807 Bolivar returned to Caracas to take charge of the revolutionary forces, and by 1822, his military genius and tenacity had succeeded in expelling Spanish influence from most of northern South America, uniting Venezuela, the old viceroyalties of New Granada (present-day Colombia), and the presidency of Quito (today Ecuador) into the republic of Gran Colombia.
Yet, in 1741, Phillip V lamented that he lacked critical information about the viceroyalties and mandated that the viceroys produce "very detailed and specific reports about the true conditions of those provinces.
As a consequence, although colonial printers did their best, the number of imported books always exceeded those printed in the viceroyalties.
3) This group of newspapers, mostly published in the 1790's, were characterized by their urban patriotic nature as they emerged in the centers of the viceroyalties such as Lima, Mexico, Havana, Quito and Santa Fe de Bogota.
The patriotic voices that denounced injustices incurred by the Crown and clamored for independence from the mother country in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries evolved from mid-century textual articulations of regional pride germinated within Spain's viceroyalties but often printed abroad.