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Within the context of severe indigenous depopulation, the political leaders of the viceroyalty led a socially, culturally and economically restrictive campaign against Black people, mulattoes and their religious brotherhoods (cofradias) during the 1620s and 1630s.
Anecdotal evidence from roughly the same period as the above records suggests a mulato population much greater than the mere 1,465 individuals recorded across the whole of the viceroyalty.
Spain particularly depended on the mining resources in Mexico and at Potosi in the Viceroyalty of Peru (in modern Bolivia), while Portugal relied heavily on the discovery of gold in Brazil that made King John V the richest man in the world.
Though remote, the recently created Viceroyalty of the River Plate shared sociocultural traits typical of the continent dominated by Spain: political absolutism, mercantilism, disregard for the law, religious uniformity, xenophobia, and social stratification.
King George III's soldiers were quickly humiliated and repelled in their two attempts to take the capital of the Viceroyalty, and their grand schemes of territorial conquest came to nothing.
I focus on eighteenth-century festival accounts from Potosi and Lima in order to compare the expression of creole patriotism in these two very different cities: one the political, cultural, and intellectual center of the Viceroyalty, the other a mining boom town that represented an economic source of wealth for the whole empire, but that did not enjoy the cultural, intellectual, or political prestige of Lima.
His Viceroyalty ended with a dramatic resignation following the machinations of the Commander-in-Chief of India, Lord Kitchener--the hero of Khartoum who had avenged the murder of General Gordon by the Mahdi.
In 1752 East Africa was separated from the viceroyalty of Goa and became a province in its own right with Mozambique Island as its capital.
30) The Viceroyalty of New Granada had been the scene of a Creole revolt against the Spanish authorities in 1781 which, as it took place at the same time as the large-scale revolt of the Indians of Peru led by Tupac Amaru, had assumed very serious proportions before it was put down.
That year, a tale began circulating in Europe about a Spanish Contessa who had been miraculously cured of an intermittent fever while in Lima, the capital of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.
The missions' yerba mate found markets throughout the Viceroyalty of Peru while other products, such as hides, represented important export items.