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Related to volunteer sample: Case Control Study, Convenience Sampling

sample (sale by, implied term)

a contract of sale is a sale by sample where there is an express or implied term to that effect in the contract. Where there is a sale by sample there is an implied condition:
  1. (1) that the bulk will correspond with the sample in quality;
  2. (2) that the buyer will have a reasonable opportunity of comparing the bulk with the sample;
  3. (3) that the goods will be free from any defect, rendering them unacceptable, which would not be apparent on reasonable examination of the sample.

If a sale is by sample as well as by description, it is not sufficient that the bulk corresponds with the sample if the goods do not also correspond with the description. It is the duty of the seller to make the sample available to the buyer for comparison.

Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006

SAMPLE, contracts. A small quantity of any commodity or merchandise, exhibited as a specimen of a larger quantity called the bulk. (q.v.)
     2. When a sale is made by sample, and it afterwards turns out that the bulk does not correspond with it, the purchaser is not, in general, bound to take the property on a compensation being made to him for the difference. 1 Campb. R. 113; vide 2 East, 314; 4, Campb. R. 22; 12 Wend. 566 9 Wend. 20; 6 Cowen, 354; 12 Wend. 413. See 5 John. R. 395.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
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The results were based on a volunteer sample of 59 classroom teachers in 24 New Jersey schools.
A volunteer sample of 19 undergraduate students at a regional university in the midsouth participated in a semi-structured focus group interview regarding their use of college textbooks.
However, the findings apply only to participating schools, teachers, and students because the study used a volunteer sample. Twelve appendices include: (1) Detailed Professional Development Agenda Sessions; (2) Statistical Power Analysis; (3) Probability of Assignment to Study Conditions; (4) Sample Size from Random Assignment to Data Analysis; (5) Teacher Survey, Fall 2007; (6) Observation Protocols; (7) Odyssey Math Sample Screens; (8) Fidelity Observation Comparisons; (9) Model Variance and Intraclass Correlations; (10) Complete Multilevel Model Results for Research Question 1; (11) Comparison of Assumed Population Parameters for Statistical Power (During Planning Phase) with Corresponding Sample Statistics (During Analysis Phase); and (12) Equations for Multilevel Model Analyses.
The volunteer sample consisted of 3,370 kindergartners in Vermont public schools.

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